Climate Change and Development Context
The main environmental stresses in Mongolia are extreme climate events, environmental pollution and degradation (such as soil and water pollution and severe air pollution in cities during winter time), and depletion of natural resources. Rapid urbanization and economic growth has made stresses related to air quality even more acute in urban areas. The World Bank has cited that to address these challenges, the Government of Mongolia (GoM) has enacted a series of environmental laws, expanded its system of nature reserves, and started to invest in energy-efficient technologies and pollution abatement schemes. In addition, GoM is trying to mainstream environmental concerns into development, and is working with international organizations and civil society to promote environmental awareness.
The Millennium Development Goals-based Comprehensive National Development Strategy of Mongolia (2008) identifies six priority areas for development through 2021. Priority Area number 5 is to create a sustainable environment for development by: limiting and halting environmental pollution and degradation, implementing an integrated policy aimed at proper use of land and mineral resources, protecting and ensuring proper use of water resources, practicing sustainable use and protection of forest reserves, containing the depletion of animal and plant life, and promoting capacity to adapt to climate change and desertification.
Key National Institutions, Policies and Initiatives
Key institutions: Mongolia began establishing a legal framework and institutional arrangements for sustainable development following the Rio Summit (1992):
– National Committee on Sustainable Development (1994, 2012), headed by the Prime Minister and a coordinating entity for development and implementation of the Mongolian Action Program for the 21st Century (MAP 21) (1994)
– National Green Development Committee (2012), headed by the Prime Minister and a governance body to coordinate and manage green development policy and strategy
– Ministry of Environment and Green Development (MEGD) (2012), replacing the Ministry of Nature, Environment and Tourism, established as one of the four core Ministries
Policies and initiatives: Mongolian Government Action Plan (2012-2016) includes several green development objectives: creating a green development concept, legal framework and action plan; implementing demonstration programs in key economic sectors; providing incentives for environmentally friendly, clean technologies and green consumption; linking green development policies with loan policies of major banks and financial institutions; enhancing stringency of environmental impact assessments; and introducing environmentally friendly technologies into mining activities. In response, MEGD is further developing a concept and program to support implementation of a “Green Development” strategy. The draft strategy includes eight goals and 33 targets towards climate compatible development, environmental sustainability, green economy and finance, responsible mining, social equity, conservation of culture and heritage, building green and smart cities, and governance for sustainable development. Now, the draft Green Development strategy is under consideration of the State Great Khural (Parliament).
Related policies and legislation include: MAP 21 (1994), Law on Air (1995, 2012) and Action Programme to Protect Air, Law on Environmental Protection (1995, 2007), National Biodiversity Action Plan (1996), National Program on Sustainable Development (1997), and National Action Plan to Combat Desertification (2000).The Mongolian National Action Programme on Climate Change (2000, 2011) sets priorities for action and integrates climate change concerns into national and sectoral development plans and programs. This Action Programme includes a set of measures, actions and strategies that enable vulnerable sectors (e.g., agriculture, buildings, energy, industry, transport, waste) to adapt to potential climate change and to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, while not adversely affect economic development and current lifestyles.
MEGD also works with a number of other countries and international organizations, such as Government of Japan on low carbon development implementing Joint Crediting Mechanism as well as the Global Green Growth Institute on green growth planning in the energy and transport sectors.
World Bank Data – Mongolia(accessed 21 Nov 2013). http://data.worldbank.org/country/mongolia
United Nations Statistics Division World Statistics Pocketbook (accessed 21 Nov 2013). http://data.un.org/CountryProfile.aspx?crName=Mongolia
World Bank Data – Mongolia(accessed 21 Nov 2013)
“Mongolia Environment,” World Bank website (accessed 22 Nov 2013). http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/EASTASIAPACIFICEXT/EXTEAPREGTOPENVIRONMENT/0,,contentMDK:20266325~menuPK:537827~pagePK:34004173~piPK:34003707~theSitePK:502886,00.html
State Great Hural (Parliament) of Mongolia Resolution, 12 February 2008. http://mofa.gov.mn/coordination/images/stories/resource_docs/nds_approved_eng.pdf
DamdinDagvadorj. “Mongolia’s Perspective on Green Development” (presented at OECD-GGGI workshop on 22 November 2012). http://www.oecd.org/greengrowth/Session%20IIa%20Speaker%203%20-%20Green%20Development%20in%20Mongolia%20by%20DDagvadorj%20%282%29.pdf
T. Chuluun, Ph.D. “‘Green Civilization’ Concept and Keynote” (accessed 22 Nov 2013). http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CDMQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmne.mn%2Fv3%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2F2013%2F06%2FChuluun_Final-English.pptx&ei=9g-PUqGuOeaeiAfG9oD4AQ&usg=AFQjCNGO3SZzDsKb7UAUo3oZRpShi0Qdgg&sig2=vy6CUk60CetSOvUWhJZeJg&bvm=bv.56988011,d.aGc
“Mongolia’s Initial National Communication” (accessed 22 Nov 2013). http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/natc/mongnc1.pdf
Global Green Growth Institute website (accessed 22 Nov 2013). http://gggi.org/mongolia-green-growth-planning-2/
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