Climate Change and Development Context
Cambodia is regarded as one of the most vulnerable countries in Asia to the effects of climate change. A major vulnerability is Cambodia’s rural population and rain-fed agriculture. UNDP estimates that agriculture engages more than 80 percent of the Cambodia’s population. Climate change challenges also relate to management of natural resources and eco-systems. Forest resources contribute about 30 percent to 40 percent of the Cambodian rural population’s total household income.
Key National Institutions, policies and Initiatives
Cambodia ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on 18 December 1995. The Convention entered into force for Cambodia on 17 March 1996.
Cambodia has presented its national development priorities and action plans in a number of key government documents, including Cambodia’s Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), The Rectangular Strategy III, the National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP) 2009–2013, Green Growth Roadmap, the National Policy on Green Growth, the National Strategic Plan on Green Growth 2013-2030, and National REDD+ Roadmap. In late 2013, the Cambodian 10-Year Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (CCCSP) 2014 -2023 has been launched and served as an entry point for climate change policy development and integration at national and sub-national levels. Its mission is to creating a national framework for engaging the public, private sectors, civil society organizations, and development partners in a participatory process for responding to climate change and to support sustainable development. Alongside the development of CCCSP, relevant ministries and agencies developed their Sectoral Climate Change Strategic Plans (SCCSPs). The strategic objectives of the CCCSP were formulated in part based on the strategic objectives of the SCCSP of the line ministries.
The Climate Change Department of the the Ministry of Environment (MOE) is responsible for climate change issues overall through high level coordination of a National Climate Change Committee chaired by Prime Minister Hun Sen. The Climate Change Department (CCD) was established under the MOE to act as Secretariat to UNFCCC as well as the National Climate Change Committee (NCCC). The Cambodia Climate Change Alliance (CCCA) – a multi-donor initiative – was also established to assist NCCC in promoting capacity building, funding mobilization and mainstreaming of climate change in NSDP and sector plans.
The MOE manages environmental pollution, natural resources, including protected areas in Cambodia (18 percent of total land area).
The National Council on Green Growth was established in 2012 and is chaired by the Prime Minister. The new body has the responsibility to coordinate and collaborate with government entities, NGOs, and civil society to formulate green growth policies, strategies, action plans, and legal instruments consistent with national sustainable development policies. There is a concern of possible overlap with existing mechanisms within the same agency, the NCCC, and other inter-ministerial committees.
The National Climate Change Network (NCCN) was established to encourage coordination and communication amongst stakeholders with the aim of reducing the severity of climate change impacts. The NCCN exists to enable information sharing and capacity building; improve coordination on climate change actions; improve dialogue amongst donors, stakeholders, academic institutions, and the government; and influence the climate change agenda.
Climate Change Department, Ministry of Environment (accessed 4 Aug 2015): http://www.camclimate.org.kh/en/ccd/history.html
National Climate Change Committee (2013). “Cambodia Climate Change Strategic Plan 2014 – 2023″: http://www.kh.undp.org/content/dam/cambodia/docs/EnvEnergy/CCCAProjects/Cambodia%20climate%20change%20strategic%20plan%202014-2023.pdf
World Bank (accessed 4 Aug 2015): http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/cambodia
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